This module examines the development of liberalism within the Western world from the French Revolution to the twenty-first century by analysing the works of quite a lot of European and American thinkers. Fukuyama declared that it was no longer contentious to declare that liberalism had confirmed that among the many modern ideologies on provide it most effectively fulfilled the needs embedded in human nature that can be met politically and economically. However, liberalism ensures freedom of conscience and freedom of speech, which conservatives could freely use to advertise their ideals and lifestyle.
His definition of liberty, influenced by Joseph Priestley and Josiah Warren , was that the individual must be free to do as he needs unless he harms others. For classical liberals — ‘outdated’ liberals — liberty and private property are intimately related. Others (e.g., Greenawalt, 1995) hold that even this is too restrictive: it is difficult for liberals to justify a moral prohibition on a spiritual citizen from voicing her view in liberal political debate.
Rawls’s notion of a purely political conception of liberalism seems more austere than the traditional liberal political theories mentioned above, being largely restricted to constitutional principles upholding basic civil liberties and the democratic process.
One of many issues that continues to confuse me as an immigrant to North America from South Africa is the way through which liberalism is utilized in ordinary conversations to point only those positions taken by Democrats in America and (capital L) Liberals in Canada.
The reemergence of financial analysis in liberal principle dropped at the fore a thoroughgoing methodological individualism. Guaranteeing each a measure of detrimental liberty is, Berlin argues, essentially the most humane ultimate, because it recognizes that ‘human objectives are many’, and no one could make a alternative that is proper for all folks (1969: 171).