Within the generations that followed the Nice Flood, there was a tower built in the land between the rivers, the land of Shinar, perhaps better referred to as Mesapotamia. Within the words of the British socialist R. H. Tawney, freedom thus understood is ‘the flexibility to behave’ (1931: 221; see also Gaus, 2000; ch. 5.) On this optimistic conception, a person not prohibited from being a member of a Nation Club but too poor to afford membership will not be free to be a member: she lacks an efficient power to act.
In the direction of the intense ‘libertarian’ finish of the classical liberal spectrum are views of justified states as official monopolies that may with justice cost for essential rights-safety providers: taxation is legitimate if essential and enough for effective protection of liberty and property.
From the mid-1980s onwards varied liberals sought to point out how liberalism might constantly … Read More